The system for listing coins may seem strange at frst glance but there is a method to the madness. If you look at the Table of Contents you will see that the chapters, paticularly the chapters on Tibetan coins are listed by date and classified by a system of Series. Each Series is then broken down into paricular groupings based on their common elements.
This is a direct link to the table of contents where you will get an idea of how this site is orginized and if the text is blue, it will be a direct link to that coin series.
This is a direct link to the photos shown in the chapters listed below. These photos are lso available in the following chapters as they will be printed, with all pertanent information and details.
These are introductions titled "The Tibetan Heritage" and "Early forms of Money"
The development of international trade in Eurasia had its beginning in the Early Medieral Florissance (ca. AD600-840) during the time when the Tibetan Empire was the major power in Central Asia.1
Tibet has carried out commercial, cultural, military, and intellectual intercourse since time immemorial with all its neighbors. Of interest here is the commercial exchange with its southern neighbor, Nepal, which has played such a significant role in trade and the supply of coinage for over 200 years from mid-16th century to AD1768.
Patterns and experimental pieces form one of the most interesting divisions
of numismatics. These pieces exist because it was customary for the mint to
provide samples of any proposed change in coinage such as different design,
denomination, metal or weight for approval or rejection.
Patterns are defined as pieces prepared officially by the mint or by the authorized agent of a coin-issuing authority which represent a new design, motto or denomination proposed for adoption as a regular issue, struck in the specific metal, and which were not adopted, at least in that same year. Those struck from these dies in other metals are pattern trial pieces.
Experimental pieces include those struck with any convenient die to try out a new metal or a new denomination. Those struck in the proper metal, where it is specified, are the experimental pieces and those struck in order metals are experimental trial pieces.
A regular die trial piece is struck from a regular die in a metal or metals other than those intended for regular issue. These are usually in soft base metals such as copper.
Die strikes or die trials are impressions, usually uniface, of an unfinished or even a completed die in a soft metal to try the die.
A piece de caprice is an unauthorized piece struck for some reason other than as a pattern, experimental or trial piece. They apparently are struck solely to satisfy the whim of some collection.
Reference: ANA, Introduction to Numismatics, 1967; ANA, the Dictionary of Numismatic Terms, 1970
The fantasy types have been classified into two groups namely: (A) Chinese types designated as 'FC', and (B) Tibetan types designated as 'FT'. This separation was made to distinguish the Chinese types which were issued outside the boundaries of Tibet and therefore have no monetary or numismatic relationship to coin issues struck in Tibet. They are mainly the imagination of Chinese officials or otherwise in concocting such pieces. Attempts have been made to connect some of these pieces to the history of Tibetan coinage. Such attempts in numismatic literature does not seem to have acceptance by the numismatic society. This fantasy group is included in this catalog so that the reader is well aware of Chinese trickery.